What's Working and What's Not: Integration on the Labor Market and in Education
ORGANISERS | Karolina Sobczak-Szelc, Marta Pachocka and Justyna Szalanska
This panel examines some of the most important functional indicators of migrant integration in European countries: labour market participation, access to education and housing from a socio- spatial point of view. Some papers that empirically analyze how integration activities and policies are designed, organized and implemented; how efficient and effective they are and what the mutual links are (if any) between macro, meso, and micro levels of policy implementation and governance structures in these areas of integration. Other papers explore the following issues: local, regional and national differences in labour market integration, housing or education access; urban versus rural experiences and the implications for integration on the local level; the role of meso-level actors such as NGOs, religious organizations, and other solidarity groups in facilitating access to labour markets, education or housing; refugee experiences and challenges and opportunities related to work and schooling.
Panel 5A – Integration in the labour market in the EU
Integration of refugees: inclusion or exclusion? The experience of labour market integration of Syrian refugees in Sweden
Manuela Prifti, Umeå University
Purpose – Sweden received a large number of immigrants in the last years and employment is considered to be the key factor in the integration process. The main institution that is in charge of the economic integration of immigrants from 2010 is The Swedish Public Employment Service (Arbetsförmedlingen). This paper aims to explore the experience of integration in the labour market (before and after finding a job) and the impact of employment in social interactions of male and female non-western immigrant in Sweden. Furthermore, this paper will examine the role of The Swedish Public Employment Service in the economic and social integration of immigrants. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical material has been interpreted with durable inequality framework developed by Charles Tilly in 1998. This paper will explore the mechanisms that create and maintain inequality in the economic integration of immigrants in Sweden. I will focus particularly on two of the mechanism producing and maintaining inequality: opportunity hoarding and adaptation. Additionally, I will combine Tilly’s framework with intersectionality approach for a better understanding of inequality and how different combination of categories can bring multiple oppression. Findings: Results showed that employment is a fundamental component for non-western immigrants to feel economically independent and respected in society. Although they are positive in regards to their employment environment, they still experience exclusion in their workplace. An interesting finding is that the employment of immigrants generally does not contribute to the expansion of social relations and building friendships with natives, but what plays an important role in this aspect are hobbies. Many of the interviewees emphasize social network as the main source in finding a job, indicating that the role of The Swedish Public Employment Service is mostly administrative, assisting with preparation of necessary documentation.
Manuela Prifti is currently pursuing a joint Master degree in Social Work and Welfare at University of Stavanger (Norway), Umeå University (Sweden) and Aalborg University (Denmark). As a human rights activist, she has been engaged in several projects in Albania carried out by local and international organizations in the field of human rights, international cooperation and development. Moreover, she assisted some projects in the field of integration of immigrants implemented by Åmål Municipality in Sweden. Ms. Prifti has a driven ambition to promote inclusion and equality, her interests encompassing issues related to human rights, gender equality and integration policy.
Refugees in the UK labour markets in 2019 – What works and what doesn’t?
Miray Erinc, Kings College London
Refugee migrants turned out into a highly valuable source of skilled labour for the European economies. Their integration however is not easy and this specific labour force can be used more efficiently, if barriers in accessing the labour markets are identified and removed. Loaded with the task of providing a smooth transition into their new home countries, in the recent years, governments across the European Union have drafted and introduced new guidelines and policy implementation which shall enable refugee migrants access into the labour markets. Whilst drafting new policy guidelines, the voices of the refugee migrants however have not been taken into consideration sufficiently. In the wake of BREXIT, this study comprises the analysis of the developments in terms of accessing the labour market, address existing shortcomings and types of uncertainties, and identifies best practices on the employment procedures based on a case study analysis in London, UK. Based on in- depth interview with refugee migrants working in London, their experiences are analysed and evaluated. Special attention are hereby given to employment process itself from the perspective of the refugees, their interaction with (potential) employers, and how policy making in refugee employment affects their experience in findings access to the labour market. The findings imply that whilst drafting policy guidelines and designing employment procedures specifically tailored for refugee migrants, more extensive field research as well as consideration of the personal experiences such as difficulties or shortcoming from the perspective of refugee migrants are required in order to provide more effective policy advice for the government and guidelines for employers.
I am a PhD graduate from KingS College London with focus on labour migration. I am currently on maternity leave (current position: research analyst in the private sector), however I have prepared an extensive project on the integration of refugees in the labour market and am awaiting approval to get started. The project will be undertaken together with the Institute für Mittelstandsforschung at the University of Mannheim.
Obstacles to the labor market integration of highly skilled refugees in Sweden
Micheline van Riemsdijk, Uppsala University
After the peak of the refugee “crisis,” host countries are now focusing on the long-term integration of refugees. This is also the case in Sweden, which took in the largest number of asylum seekers per capita of all European countries between 2013 and 2015. The recent increase in refugees has renewed attention to the need for effective integration initiatives that foster an inclusive, cohesive and prosperous society. These debates have predominantly focused on low-skilled refugees. Highly skilled refugees, defined as refugees who have completed a tertiary education or the equivalent in experience, could fill skill shortages in the labor market. These migrants, however, face considerable obstacles in entering the labor market and finding employment commensurate with their qualifications and skills. The labor market entry and workplace experiences of highly skilled refugees warrants more attention as 20 percent of working-age refugees in Europe have completed at least a tertiary education (OECD 2016). This paper examines the labor market trajectories of highly skilled refugees in Sweden, a country whose labor market integration initiatives for refugees are internationally recognized. Despite these successes, institutional obstacles remain. The paper examines the actors and institutions involved in various stages of the integration trajectory, and their initiatives to promote labor market entry for highly skilled refugees. It also examines their (lack of) cooperation, including public-private partnerships. The research findings are placed within a larger theoretical discussion regarding the (de)valuation of professional qualifications and the labor market integration of highly skilled refugees. The findings are based on a review of program documents, websites, media accounts, and interviews with actors involved in Fast Track Programs (snabbspår) in Uppsala and Stockholm, Sweden.
Micheline Van Riemsdijk is an Associate Professor of Geography at Uppsala University. Her research agenda is broadly defined by international and global governance of migration and highly skilled labor migration. She received a Ph.D. in Human Geography from the University of Colorado and an M.A. degree in Scandinavian Languages and Literatures from the University of Minnesota. She is the principal editor of Rethinking International Skilled Migration (edited with Qingfang Wang, Routledge 2017). She also edited a special issue with Marion Panizzon on multi-level governance of migration in times of crisis for the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2018). Van Riemsdijk is currently working on the workplace integration of highly skilled refugees in Sweden, funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare. Title: Obstacles to the labor market integration of highly skilled refugees in Sweden
Fast track to labour for newly arrived academics in Sweden
Ida Lidegran, Uppsala University - Elisabeth Hultqvist, Stockholm University
In the fall of 2015, over 160 000 men and women, among them 70 000 children, transcended Swedish borders within a few months. The fall 2015 has since then been referred to as the refugee crisis. Even though Sweden has been a country with a net inflow of migrants since the Second World War, the fall 2015 was extraordinary and raised a number of issues. How to handle housing, schooling? And, in the next step, jobs for more than 160 000 new comers, and, perhaps most importantly in the long run, how to provide conditions for a successful integration?
This situation opened up for new solutions and initiatives. Establishment programmes as the The Fast Track for newly arrived academics is one such new initiative and could best be understood as a hybrid form of organisation based upon a collaboration between universities and private educational companies. This new organisational form has important implications. In the case of The Fast Track, the establishing programme becomes an arrangement located in the periphery of and between two systems, the educational system and the labour market. Therefore, it is unlikely that it do produce any substantially valuable capital in the educational field or in relation to the labour market. Based on more than 50 interviews with participants in the programme, we notice that the group is in possession of specific and advanced educational credentials from their original countries, but that they this far has been unsuccessful in making these valuable in the Swedish context. Furthermore, they aim at entering a labour market characterised by hard competition and high thresholds. A preliminary result is that they in the short perspective will undergo a process of strengthening their immigrant identity rather than quickly entering the labour market (Hultqvist, Lidegran 2018).
Ida Lidegran, associate professor in Sociology of Education at Uppsala University, Sweden, is member of the research group Sociology of Education and Culture (SEC), and, together with Elisabeth Hultqvist, she directs the research group Education and Migration. Lidegran’s research fields are educational fields, educational strategies, education and migration, and elite education. Her current research focus is on labour market establishing programs for newly arrived academics and educational strategies of cultural upper middle class families. Her research is drawing on the work of Bourdieu, de Saint Martin, and Sayad among others.
Elisabeth Hultqvist, associate professor in Sociology of Education, Stockholm University, Sweden, with a particular interest in sociology of education. Her research focuses on structural changes of educational institutions, predominantly upper-secondary school and higher education, due to social and cultural transformations of the flux of students as well as analyses of family’s social history in relation to those changes. She is currently involved in a research project about immigrants and labour market establishing programs. In addition, she has also been engaged in projects regarding changes of teachers’ profession, specifically in relation to restructuring of schooling and marketization, drawing on the work of Durkheim, Bourdieu, and Bernstein, among others.
From an asylum seeker to a refugee in Poland – does the legal status matter for the situation of forced migrants on the labour market?
Karolina Sobczak-Szelc - Marta Pachocka, University of Warsaw
Recent years, in consequence of the so-called migration and refugee crisis in Europe, have brought an increasing interest in the issues of forced migrants and their integration in the EU Member States, also in Poland. The study of the situation of forced migrants on the Polish labour market is quite difficult due to the limited access to reliable data on this subject. Polish public statistics and institutions such as Central Statistical Office, Labour Offices, Office for Foreigners or competent Ministries do not regularly collect comprehensive data on the situation of these migrants on the domestic labour market. Some partial datasets are offered by the EU and the OECD or developed as part of international and national (on central and local level) research projects, but they are not enough. This data vacuum on the economic integration of forced migrants raises the need for obtaining any information. As a result, the qualitative approach turns out to be crucial, and in particular, in-depth interviews. Therefore, the proposed paper aims to explore the situation of forced migrants – understood here as asylum seekers and beneficiaries of international protection (refugees and persons with subsidiary protection) under the EU law – on the Polish labour market after 2011. The main research question concerns how the change of the legal status from an applicant for international protection to a refugee (or a person with subsidiary protection) affects the situation of these people on the labour market, both according to law and practice. To answer this question, we will refer to the results of the analysis of research material from the individual in-depth interviews on micro (asylum seekers and refugees) and meso level (among others, NGOs and local authorities) carried out between July 2018 and March 2019 in Poland within the framework of the RESPOND project (H2020).
Karolina Sobczak-Szelc - assistant professor at CMR and Principal investigator in the RESPOND project. She has a background in physical and social geography as well as in spatial development. In her research Karolina combines earth science, social geography, spatial development and sociology to study the influence of the environment to human migration from countries in arid regions. Her deep insights in this field stem from numerous studies conducted in the countries of North Africa, particularly Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, majority of which she coordinated. She also participated in a project implemented in the framework of Polish Aid entitled “Training in respect of sustainable development and environment protection in the Mhamid oasis, Morocco”. She is also interested in integration challenges and possibilities for the EU countries in relation to the large influx of migrants from Arab countries in the last years.
Marta Pachocka – assistant professor at the Department of Political Studies of the Collegium of Socio-Economics of SGH Warsaw School of Economics and a head of the Migration Policies Research Unit at the Centre of Migration Research (CMR) of the University of Warsaw. She received her PhD in Economics in 2013 with a specialisation in International Relations. At the CMR, she is a researcher in different projects, including: the RESPOND project – “Multilevel Governance of Mass Migration in Europe and Beyond” (2017–2020) co-financed by the EU Horizon 2020 Programme, in which she coordinates two working packages („International protection” and „Reception conditions”) within the Polish team; the IMINTEG project – “In search for models of relations between immigration and integration policies” co-financed by the National Science Centre in Poland (2015–2018), and the project „Atlas of Transitions. New Geographies for a Cross-Cultural Europe” coordinated by the Powszechny Theatre in Poland within Creative Europe Programme (2018–2020). Marta’s main research interests include: socio-demographic changes in Europe/the EU and their consequences; international migration, migration and asylum in Europe; EU policy on migration and asylum; forced migration studies; international economics and international organizations. She is an author and a co-author of many book chapters, journal articles and conference papers.
Panel 5B – Integration in the labour market beyond the EU
Migrant integration conditionality: myths and reality of the EU-Jordan Global Compact
One of the uncertainties in the management of refugees is how to better integrate refugees in the hosting communities. The paper focuses on the recent approach experimented by the EU which consists in providing trade and other incentives to third countries that ease the integration of Syrian refugees in the job market. In 2016 a Commission Communication has launched the idea of establishing a new partnership framework with third countries in order to tackle immigration upstream. This act also mentions the possibility to reward those countries “taking action to adequately host persons fleeing conflict and persecution”. Jordan and Lebanon provide ideal test cases for the new approach. Indeed, as result of the prolonged war in Syria, the two EU’s Southern neighbours have hosted high numbers of displaced persons for a protracted period of time. The EU has concluded Compacts both with Lebanon and Jordan in 2016. The most interesting one is the Compact with Jordan since it is pervaded by a new form of conditionality which is aimed not merely at ‘adequately hosting refugees’ but also to integrating them into the job market of the receiving State. The new approach consists in relaxing trade obstacles vis-a-vis goods coming from Jordan upon the condition that the goods are manufactured in areas which employ a certain percentage of Syrians. The paper will consider to what extent the proposed new approach and its underlying principle (i.e. migrant-integration conditionality) provides solutions to the many uncertainties that characterise refugees’ lives and offers an acceptable solution to better control refugees flows. It may be wondered whether the migrant integration conditionality experimented in the Jordan case is a technique that should be more widely used by the EU.
Sara Poli is Full Professor of European law at the University of Pisa (Italy) as of 2018. She was awarded a Jean Monnet Chair under the Life Long learning programme between 2013 and 2016. Previously, she has been assistant professor at the University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata;’ she has worked as Marie Curie Fellow at the European University Institute (Fiesole) in 2008-2009; she has been research and teaching fellow at the University of Trieste and Robert Schuman Fellow at the European University Institute in in 2002-2003. She has been lecturer of European Law at the University of Southampton and teaching assistant of the College of Europe (law department) in Bruges. She obtained her Master of legal studies degree at the College of Europe, and her PhD from the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari and perfezionamento S. Anna (Pisa) where she also did her undergraduate studies. She graduated from the University of political science in (Pisa) in 1995. Sara has received a number of research grants such as the Vlac fellowship of the Royal academy of Belgium for science and the arts, the Marie Curie intra-european fellowship and the Jean Monnet and the Fulbright-Schuman fellowships (Dickinson School of Law, PA). She has published in leading EU law journals such as the Rivista di diritto dell’Unione europea, Rivista di Diritto Internazionale, Studi sull’integrazione europea, Diritto del Commercio Internazionale, the Common Market Law Review, the Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, the European Law Journal, the European Law Review, the Yearbook of European law, the Maastricht Journal of European law and Revista de Derecho comunitario europeo. She has carried out research in several areas of EU law, including most recently in the area of EU external relations.
The socio-economic and legal status of foreign labour migrants from the Eurasian Economic Union in Russia
Sergey Ryazantsev - Galina N. Ochirova, University of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia
The Eurasian Economic Union (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan) offers significant opportunities to the EAEU nationals. The creation of single market between these countries has allowed not only free movement of capital, goods and services, but also of people. Citizens of the EAEU countries can enter any EAEU country without visa and have more simplified registration procedure. The EAEU labour migrants do not need to obtain any work permit and they have same tax rate as citizens of the country.
In this paper, we explored to what extent the establishment of the EAEU has brought a benefit to foreign labour immigrants in Russia, which is the top receiving country in the EAEU zone, and what other barriers labour migrants meet, in spite of their legal status. Thus, we critically analysed Russian migration and labour policies, and explored migration data based on official statistics of Russia.
We have determined that, despite more advantageous position, the EAEU labour migrants still have socio-economic and legal barriers in Russia such as the complexity of registering at the place of actual stay, thus difficulty with sending children to kindergarten or school. There are also incidents of exploitation and non-payment of salary due to the absence of employment contract and impeded access to health care for labour migrants’ family members. Moreover, salient issue is a lack of a pension system for migrant workers and complicated and only partial reimbursement of family expenses for the repatriation of the body of the deceased abroad etc. Therefore, all these impediments are results of bureaucratic mechanisms and steps in migration policy, which are not always logical, consistent and clear, in addition, often politicized, aimed at unreasonable restrictions. Despite the EAEU integration, each state-member implements migration policy based on its own socio-economic interests, and often it is disproportionate.
Sergey V. Ryazantsev, Head of the Department of Demographic and Migration Policy of the MGIMO University of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, and the Director of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the RAS (the ISPR RAS). Corresponding member of the RAS since 2011, Professor, Doctorate in Economics. The leading Russian specialist in the field of Economics, Demography, Migration and Migration policy. Mr. Ryazantsev - Member of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation, Interdepartmental Working Group of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation on the development of the Concept of Demographic Policy, etc. He is the owner of grants of Russian scientific foundations - Russian Scientific Found, Russian Found Basic Research, Russian Humanitarian Scientific Fond, and Found of the President of the Russian Federation. He is repeatedly invited as a national expert for Russian agencies and international organizations - ILO, IOM, UNHCR, UNDP, ESCAP, and the Council of the Baltic Sea countries.
Galina N. Ochirova, PhD Student in Economic Sociology and Junior Research Associate at the Department of Migration and Migration Policy of the Institute of Socio-Political Research of the RAS (the ISPR RAS). Research interests are socio-economic perspectives of highly qualified and labour migration, academic mobility, and environmental migration. She holds an LLB with Honours from the Moscow State University for the Humanities named after M.A. Sholokhov, Russia. She also has a Master of Arts degree with merit in Migration Studies from the University of Sussex, the UK. Miss Ochirova is a winner of the “Global Education” programme, and has been awarded a full scholarship of the Russian Ministry of Education.
Integrating Bottom-up into Top-down: the Role of Local Institutions in Labour Market Integration of Syrian Refugees in Adana
Selin Sivis, University of Essex
As Turkey has become one of the leading receiving countries for asylum-seekers and refugees, not only new legislative initiatives regarding the legal status of Syrians, but also reception policies have moved to the forefront of Turkey’s agenda. In parallel with recent developments in Turkey’s legislative frameworks considering asylum and refugee protection, the new Regulation on provision of Work Permits for People under Temporary Protection was enacted in January 15, 2016. Unlike in many European countries, temporary protection status holders are allowed to work legally in the Turkish province where they first registered. Almost half of Syrians refugees residing in Turkey are of working age population, yet the majority of those working has been engaged in the informal labour market. And, we know little about how this permit to work takes effect and is practiced at the local level. Based on an evidence-based research addressing different practices of labour market integration policies at the local level, this study claims that the absence of both national and local integration policies fosters bureaucratic incorporation in cities. By documenting the link between bureaucratic incorporation and the non-existence of integration policies, I emphasize the importance of local conditions and the need for long-term and inclusionary labour market integration governance. Methodologically, I propose an integrated picture of bottom-up local level dynamics and top-down regulations relating to the labour market integration policies of asylum seekers and refugees. My data, integrated with secondary data on labour market integration policies, comes from structured interviews conducted in Turkey with governmental representatives, stakeholders, policy-makers, trade union members, NGO practitioners, and civil society members. The evidence I present here maps out more constructive, and functional local labour market integration policies by taking into account not only Syrians’ well-being, but also catering to host community’s concerns.
Selin Sivis is currently a doctoral researcher at the Department of Sociology, the University of Essex. In her research, she focuses on how the boundary-making process takes place in multiple forms from perspectives of host population towards refugees and asylum-seekers in the informal market economy. She also works as Senior Research Officer at the Essex Centre for Migration Studies and as Junior Researcher for the EU funded project, entitled "Integrating Syrians into Turkish Higher Education through Recognition of Qualifications (REFREC-TR)" which is coordinated by UNESCO Chair on International Migration, Yasar University (Izmir, Turkey). She holds a M.A. degree in Immigration Management from University Pompeu Fabra and B.A degree in History from Middle East Technical University. She held visiting research fellow positions at Yasar University in Izmir and Çukurova University in Adana, Turkey. Before starting to pursue Ph.D. degree, she was working as a Research Assistant at Migration Research Centre at Koç University in Istanbul. In the centre, she was responsible for three EU funded projects: INTEGRIM, Transnational Migration in Transition: Transformative Characteristics of Temporary Mobility of People (EURA-NET), and Mobile Welfare: European Welfare Systems in Times of Mobility. She was also the Coordinator of the MiReKoc International Summer School of 2016, entitled ‘Old Phenomena, and New Challenges: Forced Migration’ which provides research-oriented, interdisciplinary, and innovative academic courses on migration, as well as workshops on related policy issue for professional development. Also, she has taught SC233- Race, Class and Gender in 2018-2019 academic year.
Governing labor migration movements across the Mediterranean Sea: a strategic analysis of labor matching mechanisms
Giovanni Esposito - Giorgia Trasciani, University of Naples “L'Orientale”
EU policy distinguishes between regular and irregular migratory ‘flows’. The latter refers to migration movements that take place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. Conversely, the former refers to those migration movements complying with existing regulatory frameworks and often refers to labour migration – i.e. movement of persons from one State to another for the purpose of employment. Our research focuses on regular migration flows for the purpose of employment (i.e. movements of jobseekers) between the northern – i.e. EU - and southern – i.e. Middle-East and North-African (MENA) countries - shores of the Mediterranean Sea along three lines of inquiry.
Firstly, we analyse the policy environment within which EU and MENA policy-makers operate. This environment refers to the broader socio-economic context that is relevant for these actors. Secondly, we describe the policy mechanisms available to policy-makers to act upon that environment. By mechanisms we mean interventions – such as legislation, regulations, spending programs and international agreements – to influence movements of jobseekers in the area. Thirdly, we explain how the combination of these mechanisms allows policy-makers to govern labour migration movements across the Mediterranean Sea and constitutes the basis for the regional governance of an ‘orderly’ labour migration in this area.
Giovanni Esposito is post-doc researcher at the Department of Human and Social Sciences of University of Naples “L'Orientale” and associate researcher at HEC Liège Management School of University of Liège. As an expert of public policy and public sector management, his research interests cover different aspects of EU policy-making, including labour migration policy in the Euro-Mediterranean region. His PhD work focused on the organization and reform of the European public sectors. Several parts of his PhD dissertation were published in the journals Politics and Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, and in the book “The Reform of Network Industries Evaluating Privatisation, Regulation and Liberalisation in the EU” by Edward Elgar Publishing.
Giorgia Trasciani is PhD Candidate at the Department of Human and Social Sciences of University of Naples “L'Orientale”, and University of Aix-Marseille, where she is member of the LEST (Laboratoire d’Economie et Sociologie du Travail). Her research interests focus on aspects of the social and solidarity economy, particularly the role of associations, co-operatives and social enterprises in developing services of reception and integration for asylum seekers and refugees. In her thesis she particularly focuses on the relationship between public authorities and Social and Solidarity Economy Organizations and the instruments of public procurements, and project-based funding for social services and public policies. She is Visiting Researcher at the Glasgow Caledonian University supported by the EU fund for mobility COST, EMPOWER-SE.
Panel 5C – Education
Young refugees' participation in upper-secondary education: A social-ecological analysis of constraints and enablers in Northern Greece.
Lucy Hunt, University of Oxford
With a steady flow of young refugees arriving in South East Europe over recent years, their participation in education is a particularly pertinent issue; not least because it can offer the chance for social group cohesion, positive psychosocial impacts, and mitigation of at-risk behaviours such as crime and social withdrawal. Despite much discussion in the media and reports in the grey literature investigating refugee education in countries neighbouring Syria, little attention has been paid to their educational exclusion at the borders of the European Union. Little is known about their experiences in Greece, for example, despite its status as a key entry point and transit country, its major legislative changes since 2015, and it being termed a ‘testing ground’ for EU asylum policies. While access to education has increased since 2016, recent data reveals that only half of all secondary-age refugee youth enrol in high school, and of this number, only half attend for longer than one month.
This paper is based on preliminary findings of an ESRC-funded DPhil project which investigates this issue. Specifically, it is a social-ecological exploration of barriers to post-primary schooling, in the context of recent integration efforts by the Greek government. The paper covers three elements of the project: firstly, it maps out the asylum, youth and education policies which concern adolescent refugees and their schooling, to present a picture of the macro-level policy environment; secondly, it discusses their implementation, with reference to the provision available and the role of NGOs and international organisations in these efforts; and thirdly, it explores what is currently known about the challenges and opportunities to participation which occur at the macro level, and how refugee youth and their families navigate this policy environment. It concludes by outlining initial policy recommendations and the direction that further qualitative enquiry will take.
Lucy Hunt is a DPhil researcher at the University of Oxford’s Department of Education, and in both her doctoral studies and wider professional life She focuses on issues at the intersection of education and migration. She is a qualified language teacher with experience of teaching and advising on educational programmes for UNESCO, NGOs, state schools and universities. She has an MSc in Educational Studies from the University of Leuven, Belgium, and she is currently working on an ESRC-funded PhD project which investigates issues affecting young refugees' participation in post-compulsory education in South East Europe.
Mapping the integration of migrant and refugee children in education: Co-creating socio-educational indicators of integration
Shirley Martin - Deirdre Horgan - Jacqui O'Riordan - Reana Maier, University College Cork
This paper will explore ongoing research investigating the socio-educational integration of migrant children in school across Europe. In particular, the paper will focus on recent research in Ireland related to the identification of indicators of socio-education integration for migrant and refugee children and youth. This research is being conducted as part of the IMMERSE Horizon2020 European Research project which is mapping the integration of migrant and refugee children in schools in Europe and recently funded under the Horizon 2020-SC6-Migration call. IMMERSE is a 4-year project and will be conducted between December 2018 and November 2022. The project is coordinated by COMILLAS Pontifical University and University College Cork is the Irish partner for IMMERSE. By adopting a systems-based approach, influenced by Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological systems theory, IMMERSE will collect data on children’s socio-educational integration. Influenced by Bronfenbrenner’s model, we are conducting focus groups with parents and children to identify significant micro-level indicators. All of the focus groups with children and young people will follow a participatory research methods approach and will be designed to reflect the ages and language competencies of the children in each group (Horgan et al, 2017; Martin et al, 2018). We are also conducting focus groups with school principals, teachers, parent associations, migrant and refugee associations and religious associations to identify meso level indicators and expert interviews with key decision-makers in the area of migration to identify macro-level indicators. The findings from this phase of the research which will be used for the overall IMMERSE project to build the socio-educational integration measurement tool.
Shirley Martin, School of Applied Social Studies, University College Cork. My subject area is social policy and childhood studies with a focus on child migration, education and child participation. I have been a Social Policy Lecturer in UCC since 2005 and I am currently the Irish Primary Investigator and a Work Package Leader for IMMERSE a Horizon2020 European Research project which is mapping the integration of migrant and refugee children in schools in Europe and recently funded under the Horizon 2020-SC6-Migration call. IMMERSE is a 4-year project and will be conducted between December 2018 and November 2022.
The social and educational integration of young refugees and asylum seekers in resettlement
Mara Gabrielli, Autonomous University of Barcelona
Despite the growing presence of young refugees and asylum seekers in the age of compulsory and post-compulsory schooling in host societies, scientific literature has neglected the social and educational experiences of these young people in the mainstream education. Therefore, this study analyses educational policies and programs addressed to this population to identify limits and challenges that hamper their social and educational pathways, as well as, key policies and strategies that foster educational achievements and the transition to the labor market. Through a qualitative research, we explore formal and non-formal educational contexts, focusing the analysis on the agency of young refugees and asylum seekers for an in-depth understanding of their needs, aspirations and expectations, and the strategies of resilience that these youngsters adopt to achieve their goals and overcome sistemic, social and cultural barriers. This research is based on visual ethnography and visual anthropology through the implementation of visual photography as a participatory tool that puts the everyday experience of young refugees and asylum seekers to the center of the research. Participatory methodologies are considered as experiential and learning processes towards the production of sharing knowledge between the researcher and the young participants.
Mara Gabrielli is a PhD student in Education at the Department of Systematic and Social pedagogy at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. She graduated as Philologist in English studies at the University "La Sapienza" of Rome. She completed the Interdisciplinary Master in Contemporary Migrations at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in 2012, and the Interuniversity Master in Youth and Society at the University of Gerona (Spain) in 2016. Her research interests lie in global migration movements, forced migration and education, with a specific interest on the social and educational integration of young migrants and refugees and unaccompained minors in resettlement. As regards the methodological approach, her interests focus on the participatory approach to research through the implementation of participatory visual methods. She is currently working as social educator in youth projects with unaccompained minors and young migrants to promote their socio-educational integration and their transition to labor market.
School segregation of refugee pupils in Athens (2017-2018)
Vasiliki Mylona, National Technical University of Athens
Migration and population mobility are fundamental parts of cities’ development. If we consider that space interacts with the society and it includes and is included to the social structure (Poulatzas, 1978, Harvey, 1973, Lefevbre, 1991), then we can assume that spatial integration is connected to the access to urban resources such as housing, schools and public spaces.
Nowadays, Syria’s war has spawned 4.8 million refugees who seek asylum in neighboring countries with hundreds of thousands in Europe. In the current period of ongoing economic crisis and welfare state dismantling addressing the needs of refugees can be challenging.
Since the beginning of the refugees’ flows, the Greek government, NGOs and the European Union have been activated in order to respond to the needs of the incoming population. In the Greek context, the Greek government, NGOs and the European Union have been cooperating since the beginning of the refugee crisis, with a view to responding to the housing and education needs of the refugees. Each of the actors involved, has taken on a different role in the integration process - whether through the organization of camps, the provision of apartments in urban centers or through the organization of language lessons for the adults and reception classes at the public schools. At the same time, refugees and asylum seekers, alongside citizens, have created self-organised communities in order to fulfill their basic needs by occupying abandoned buildings in the center of Athens.
The main question is if there is ethnic school segregation in the neighborhoods with the higher percentage of refugee inhabitants. Hence, the research aims to map the refugee population density in Athens, based on the different types of accommodation by using density indicators in GIS (Kernel) and investigate the ethnic school segregation in these neighborhoods.
VASILIKI (VILY) MYLONA is an Urban Planner with a MSc Degree on “Urban Planning and Policy Design” from the Polytechnic School of Milan (2014-2016). Currently, she is a PhD candidate at the National Technical University of Athens, where she works as a Teaching Assistant at the course of Environmental and Urban Planning. Her research interest lies broadly in the areas of geography, urban and migration studies. Her PhD research - funded from the National Institution of Scholarships (IKY) - looks at the integration of refugees in Athens, with a special reference to the spatial indicators of this process and in particular, on the socio-spatial dimensions of housing policies and the use of public spaces.
(How) does Norway teach asylum seekers not to rape?
Dragana Kovacevic Bielicki, University of Oslo
In this presentation I want to explore the English-language media coverage of what was colloquially labeled as “rape prevention classes” that were introduced in asylum centers Norway since 2013.
BBC, The New York Times and many other English-language media in 2015 and 2016 covered this new and controversial practice. The NY Times notes how this was “a pioneering and, in some quarters, controversial program that seeks to prevent sexual and other violence by helping male immigrants from societies that are largely segregated or in which women show neither flesh nor public affection to adapt to more open European societies.” The texts I collected were in most cases followed by pictures and videos of the classes themselves, or other types of related images.
Using this material, I analyze multimodal discourse, including both the text itself and the visual representations that the media in question chose to accompany the text, in their interaction with each other and their sociocultural context. I will multimodal critical discourse analysis or MCDA (e.g., Van Leeuwen & Kress 2001; Kress 2010, Machin 2013). The main question I pose is how these means of representation legitimize or conceal power, reveal or subvert social boundaries.
Dragana Kovacevic Bielicki is a social researcher focusing mainly on forced migration, nationalism, groupism, and identity and belonging in discourse. Based in Norway since 2009, she received a PhD in Migration, Nationalism and Culture Studies in 2016 from the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo. A monograph based on her doctoral research was published in 2017 with the title Born in Yugoslavia- Raised in Norway: Former Child Refugees and Belonging (Oslo, Novus Press, 2017). In addition, she holds degrees from Central European University (MA, Nationalism Studies) and the University of Belgrade (BA, Philosophy). She is a returning lecturer for the Peace Scholars program at the International Summer School, University of Oslo and during spring 2019 a visiting postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Advanced Studies of Southeastern Europe, University of Rijeka.